Tuesday, November 20, 2007

Death Part 2: Judgement Day and the Afterlife

Category: SOUND

The jurist, Abu-al Laith (ra), says that when the people will be made to rise up from their graves on the Resurrection Day, they will continue to stay there in this very condition for seventy years, and no attention will be given to them and, in this very anxiety, they will weep so vehemently that no tears will be left in their eyes, instead of tears, blood will start flowing down from their eyes.

Pul Sirat

And a Muslim of the lowest degree, drenched in sins, will, in the like manner, pass over this bridge with faltering steps, within the duration of seven thousand years. Hazrat Fazil bin 'Ayyaaz (ra) says: The exact length of the Pul Sirat is of three thousand years; its ascent is of one thousand years while its peak is also of one thousand years, whose surface is a level plain. In a word, it would be such a terrible place that even the Messengers of Allah would utter helplessly: O Allah! Peace! Peace! (Jawahir-ul-Tafsir)


On that day, father will tell his son that I was your father. He will also remind his son of the favours he had done for him. The son will affirm the favours of his father. After this, father will tell his son that he needs only one virtue-even a tiny part of it-because, due to it my scale of good works may perhaps become weighty. The son will tell him that he himself is undergoing the same misfortune. I am ignorant in what position I am and of that which is going to happen to me. I am not in a position to give you any virtue. Then, that person will also ask his wife to remember the favours he had done for her in the world as well as the kind of relationship he had with her and then will beg for one virtue. She too will refuse in the like manner. In a word, he will continue to wander so as to beg for a virtue. (Durr-e-Manthur, narrated by Ikramah (ra))

The Dunya

Ibn 'Abbas (ra) states: "On the Day of Doom, the Dunya (world), shall be produced before the people in the form of an old woman, ugly, deep-sunken eyes, teeth bending outwards. The people shall be asked, "Do you recognise her?" They shall reply, "God protect us! What a horrible ugly thing is this!" The people will be told: "This is the same world for the sake of which one murdered the other, people forgot kindness in mutual dealings; for her sake you envied each other, nursed grudges against one another and you were caught in her deceitful trap." Thereafter this the old woman will be thrown into Hell. She will cry, "Send with me those people also. Send along those who used to hanker after me." The Most Magnificent and Just Lord shall ordain: "Send along with her those people who used to hanker after her."

Punishment (for those who embellish their persons and perform evil deeds)

On one occaison the illustrious Prophet (saw) while giving an account of his ascension to heaven observed: "In the next world I saw a group of men whose bodies were being cut into slices. I enquired from Gabriel (as): 'Who are these people?' Gabriel (as) replied, 'These are the very same people who used to embellish their persons' (and came out to do evil deeds). Then I saw a well. This well emitted foul smell and painful cries were coming out of it. I asked Gabriel (as): 'Who are these people?' Gabriel (as) replied: 'These are the women who used to embellish their bodies and performed unlawful deeds.' Then I beheld some men and women who were dangling from their breasts downwards. I asked, 'Who are these?' To this Gabriel (as) replied: 'These are the people who reproached each other and indulged in backbiting.'" (Durr-e-Manthur)

Punishment (for the haughty)

Hazrat 'Umar bin Shu'ab (ra) has reported a tradition of the Holy Prophet (saw): "On Doomsday the haughty shall be like the ants. The people on the plain of Doom shall be trampling them underfoot. Fire shall engulf them from four sides. They shall be tortured in an exclusive dungeon of Hell, which is called 'Bolus'. They shall be caught in a fiercely burning fire and they shall be given for drink the dirty dark blood taken from the wounds of the denizens of Hell. (Tirmidhi)

Three people who will not enter Paradise

Hazrat Ibn 'Umar (ra) relates that the Holy Prophet (saw) observed: "Three persons shall never enter Paradise: one, who has no idea of self respect; second, a drunkard; third, a man who adopts the manner of women" (and vice-versa)(Tibrani)

Destruction of the Ummah

Hazrat Anas (ra) related that the Holy Prophet (saw) observed: "When the following five evils shall creep into my Ummah, it will then be destroyed: 1) Cursing one another; 2) Use of liquor on a large scale; 3) Wearing of silken dresses; 4) Increased number of dancing girls and their shows at large gatherings; 5) Homosexuality." (Baihaqi)

Miserable State of the Hypocrites

When the Muslims will have arrived on the bridge of Heaven, the hypocrites who will be enveloped in darkness will call out in piteous voices. "Brothers, stay a while so that guided by your light we may also step forward." The Muslims will say to them in reply: "Go back and get your light from where we got it." Hence when the hypocrites will turn back they shall find themselves in the depths of darkness and stillness. At last they shall come back much disturbed and feeling very uneaesy. They shall behold that a great wall has been erected on the edge of the Bridge of Heaven and the entrance has been barred. Hence they will cry out bitterly to the Muslims: "Were we not your companions in the moral world? So why do you leave us behind now?" They will reply, "You were with us, no doubt, but only superficially. In your hearts you harboured doubts about the faith and while wishing well to the infidels you wanted to do harm to us. Hence it is proper that you should go and join those whom you used to support and befriend." In the meanwhile the flames of fire will envelope them and drive them to the lowest depths of Hell. Those Muslims who will pass over the Bridge of Heaven with the speed of air or lightning will say after crossing over to Paradise: "We had heard that Hell lies on the way to Heaven, but we never beheld Hell."

The Holy Prophet (saw), after being admitted to Paradise with his followers, will not rest easy. He will in fact continue to worry about the many of his Ummah who are in Hell and will pray non-stop for seven days before the first batch are pardoned. That's seven days in Afterlife time I think. Can you believe how much he loves his Ummah? Including those of us he's never met or seen. Does anyone else in your life love you to that extent? Likely everyone else we know would not hesitate to start enjoying Paradise.


The Holy Prophet (saw) stated: "Hell has been inflamed continuously for one thousand years. Consequently, its fire became red. Again, it had been burnt for one thousand years and its red colour became white. Still again it had been kindled for one thousand years, and its white-coloured flames turned into black. So the existing colour of the fire of Hell is black-as black as dark night." Another authority states that the flames of Hell do not illuminate, it always remains dark. Another narration reveals that if the denizens of Hell lie on the worldly fire (that we have here), they will enjoy sound sleep because it is much cooler than the fire of Hell.

Every one of these extensive levels [of Hell] is replete with incalculable pains, tortures, and torments and multifarious houses. For instance, there is a house called "Gayy", the severity of its torments is such that the denizens of the other six levels pray four hundred times daily for salvation from its tortures. There is another house, known as "Zamharir", it is the region of extreme cold. There is still another house "Jubb-ul-Huzan" (well of griefs), where is a well called Tinatul Khabal-mire of pus and poison. There is a towering mountain, known as Sa'ud, it spsace equals to seventy years' walking. Idolators would be thrown into the Fire of Hell from its peak. There is a pond, Aab-i-Hamim, with so hot water that the moment a sinner drinks it, his upper lip swells to such an extent that it covers his nose and eyes; the lower, his chest. As this water passes down the throat, his tongue burns; mouth contracts and ultimately this boiling water tears apart the human lungs, stomach and intestines. There is another tank Ghassaq wherein gathers the idolators' puss, sweat, and blood. Another fountain, Ghisleen, serves the same purpose. Likewise, there are countless tormenting scenes in Hell.

The People in Hell

The size of the sinners' bodies would be stretched and broadened so as to magnify their sufferings and various types of tortures shall be inflicted on the exterior as well as the internal parts of each fibre and limb of their bodies. Burning, crushing, biting by poisonous snakes and scorpions, piercing with thorns, slashing of skin-these are the manifold modes of punishment in Hell. Due to the excess of heat and warmth in Hell, bodies of the sinners would melt; will be reborn and melt again. This process would be repeated for seven hundred times in the duration of a moment. But this point should not be ignored that the shape of the original limbs of their bodies would not undergo any change; flesh and skin would repeatedly be tortured. Skin of some infidels is said to be forty-two yards thick; their teeth would resemble towering mountains, and their sitting would cover an unlimited space. After a long time, the pangs of hunger would be increased to such extremity that it will surpass all other torments. At last, the sinners would become terribly restless and demand food to satisfy their appetite. THey would be given to eat Zaqqum, a thorny plant, which would get stuck in their throats. They would cry for water, as they used to do in the world when a morsel of food gets stuck in their throats. It shall be ordained that water be provided to them from Jahim, the very first level of Hell. it would cause their lips to swell, tongue to dwindle, throat to break into pieces, and their intestines will be torn apart and excreted through their anuses. So, being in dire distress, they will supplicate to the Lord of Hell for death, so that their punishment may come to an end. After a thousand years he will say: "You will always remain in Hell." After a thousand years they will pray to God: "Deprive us of our lives, but have mercy and relieve us of this intolerable torment." After one thousand years the Lord shall ordain: "Hold your tongue, and not beg My pardon; you have been condemned forever." At last perforce they will say to one another: "Let us endure, for endurance may bear good fruit." They will continuously pray to the Almighty for one thousand years with extreme lamentation and entreaty, but all in vain. Ultimately when all hope is lost they will say to one another, restlessness or patience are one and the same for us, For us there is no means of salvation. They would be turned upside down. The shape of their bodies would be distorted and they would assume the form of dogs, donkeys, monkeys, wolves, snakes, and other beasts and animals. Such is the description of the condition of the infidels on that Day.

The Holy Prophet (saw) observed: "Some of my followers would be in Hell so tall and big that a single man will occupy the entire space in a corner of Hell."(Targhib and Tarhib)

It is narrated on the authority of Hazrat Mujahid (ra) that Hazrat Ibn 'Abbas (ra) said: "Do you know the width of Hell?" I replied in the negative. He said: "Yes, by God! Verily there would be a distance of seventy years between the shoulder and the ear-lobe of a sinner, and therein would be running streams of puss and blood." (Targhib)

Hell will be angry

Re: Surah Mulk, Verse 29

Hell will yet be a hundred years away from the damned persons when Hell shall behold them and they shall behold Hell. Upon seeing them Hell will start convulsing with fury and yelling with intense rage. The hellish people will bear all this and when finally they shall be thrust into it, they will yearn for Death just as in the mortal world, they used to say in times of distress.

Siisilah (long chains)

Hazrat Ibn 'Abbas (ra) said: "The chains would be pierced into the body of the sinners through the anus, and will be taken out at the other end. Then the body of the sinner will be roasted on fire as 'kabab' is grilled on skillets or as the locust is roasted in oil." (Ibn Kathir)

Tears of Blood

It is narrated on the authority of Hazrat Anas (ra) that the Holy Prophet (saw) observed: "O, Men! You should weep; and if you do not weep, try to weep because the people in Hell would shed tears so much that their tears would mark drains on their faces. When their tears come to an end, blood would begin to flow from their eyes, causing deep injury to them. In short, there will be such an abundance of tears and blood that if boats were to be set on them, they would begin to sail." (Sharah Sunnah)

Reflection in this world

The Holy Prophet (saw) has observed: "Hell has been concealed in the pleasures of the world and Paradise lies hidden in the hardships of life." (Bukhari) (Muslim)

Friendships in the Afterlife (Paradise)

All worldly friendships will turn into animosity except that the worldly friendships among God-fearing people shall remain firm even in Heaven. The God-fearing shall stand by each other in Heaven even as they stood by each other in worldly life, and the faithful shall receive a voice from God which will tell them in effect:

1) O My people! You are free from this day from all sorts of anxieties and cares; nor shall you suffer any grief in the future.
2) O those who having believed in Our revelations remained faithful to Us! Enter Paradise with good cheer and take your wives along with you.
3) Your servants shall continue to wait upon you with golden plates and cups.
4) In brief all these things that your hearts desire or your eyes wish to look at for pleasure will be made available in paradise. As a matter of fact you shall forever remain in the same state in the realm of Paradise. No sickness shall visit you; neither any blessing will decrease or decline, nor any animosity or feuds shall arise (like among the worldly rich). Neither will there be old age, nor will anyone know death.

Paradise is the name of the place where there is no pain of any sort, no dispute and no war.

Women of Paradise (Houris)

Hazrat Mu'adh (ra) states that the Holy Prophet (saw) observed: "Whenever a worldly woman vexes her husband [the good ones fated for Paradise], his appointed wife, the Houri in Heaven, curses that worldly woman saying: 'Curse be on you! Do not trouble him, for he is only thy guest for a few days. He will soon leave you and come over to me'." (Tirmidhi)

[At this point there are a series of Hadiths about the women in Paradise. They can be summed up as follows: 1) Women from this world who make it into Paradise rank higher than the famed Houris. 2) Some weak traditions assert that a woman will be either with the last husband she had on Earth and others assert that she will be with the best of the husbands she had on Earth. Allah knows best, and in the case of what women want, only Allah knows best. It is between Him and them when they arrive.]

The late arrival of a Companion (ra) in Paradise

...The Holy Prophet (saw) then turned towards Hazrat 'Abdur Rahman ibn 'Auf (ra) and observed: "From amongst all my companions you came to me very late. I had been anxious about you and thought per chance you had died; and I saw that you were drenched in perspiration. I enquired from you, 'Where were you? Why are you so late in arriving?' You answered: 'Since my assets were large, I was taken up with the rendering of accounts: Where did I earn and where did I spend?'" Hearing this about himself, Hazrat 'Abdur Rahman b. Auf (ra) started weeping and submitted: 'O Prophet of God! Only this night one hundred camels laden with merchandise from Egypt have reached me. I have given them in charity to the destitutes and orphans of the sacred city of Medina. Per chance because of this deed Almighty Allah may lessen the burden of my accountability on that Day." (Targhib)

'Abdur Rahamn ibn 'Auf (ra) was one of the most eminent companions, one of the ten to whom the Prophet (saw) had guaranteed Paradise to during their lifetime. He was one of the six men upon whom Hazrat 'Umar (ra), at the time of his martyrdom, had laid the responsibility of choosing a Caliph. He said about them: "The Holy Prophet (saw) left the world well-content and satisfied about the conduct of these men." Later, the other five decided to leave the choice of the Caliph to his discretion alone and it was upon his suggestion that Hazrat 'Uthman (ra) was appointed as the third Caliph. He was one of the earliest converts to Islam, he migrated twice, he fought in the battle of Badr and all the other wars during the Prophet (saw)'s lifetime. Even during the time of the Prophet (saw) he was looked upon as a learned man and jurist. Hazrat 'Umar (ra) adopted certain measures relying upon his counsel alone. The Prophet (saw) had also once offered prayers behind him. (Asaba)

A time came once when the Holy Prophet (saw) called upon him to offer his goods in charity, and he gave away half of all his goods. Thereafter he once doled out 40,000 dinars. On another occaison he gave a donation of five hundred horses and five hundred camels for Jihad. He released 30,000 slaves from bondage, and according to one tradition secured emancipation for 30,000 families. Once he sold his lands for 40,000 gold coins and distributed the entire amount among the destitute, the emigrants, his own relatives, and the wives of the Holy Prophet (saw).(Mustadarak)

At the time of his death, he bequeated in his will 400 red dinars to each man who fought in the Battle of Badr. At that time, one hundred veterans were still alive. He also left behind a garden which was sold for 40,000 gold coins as a legacy to the wives of the Holy Prophet (saw). His own outlook was that he once sat down to dinner after having a bath. He was served a mixed meal of bread and meat in a cup. On seeing this, he wept. Someone asked the reason of his weeping. He observed: "The Holy Prophet (saw) died in such a state that he could not afford enough oat bread to eat to his fill. This opulence is not propitious for me." (Asaba)

In spite of his perfect virtues, the accountability to which Hazrat 'Abdur Rahman (ra) would be subjected on the Day of Judgement has been mentioned above.

Now look at ourselves.

Other Stuff

"When a lewd person commits adultery, he does not remain a Mu'min at that time. A thief ceases to be a Mu'min at the time of theft and a drunkard is not a Mu'min at the time of drinking." (Bukhari) (Muslim)

Abu 'Ubaida (ra) and Mu'adh bin Jabal (ra) observed: The Prophet of God (saw) has said: "This phenomenon (i.e, religion) has been revealed with prophethood and blessings (i.e, in the initial period of religion came revelations and blessings). This will be followed by the period of Khilafat and blessings. Thereafter shall follow the reigns of tyrannical kings and the next period will witness pride, wrath, suppression and world-wide wars. During this period people will regard it lawful to wear silk garmnets. They will consider drinking and debauchery as permissible. And in spite of all this God shall send them provisions to eat and they shall be succoured until they are called to the presence of God (i.e, they shall be presented before God on the Day of Judgement)." (Mishkat)

Friday, November 16, 2007

Signs of the Hypocrites

Category: SOUND
From the book 'Thala thun Alamah lil-Munafiqin' by Aa'id Abdullah Al-Qarni. All quotes uncited are from there. Notes by me will be in this color.

Signs of the Hypocrites

Abu Hurayrah (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) is reported to have said: "Surely, the worst of men are the two-faced. Who come to these with a face and to those with another face."
(Bukhari #6058, 7179) (Muslim #100-2526) (Tirmidhi #2025) (Abu Dawud #4782) (Ahmad 21307)

'Umar ibn Khattab (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) said: "What I fear most for my Ummah is every eloquent-tongued hypocrite."
(Jami Saghir #239) (Ahmad #137) (Foryabi #23)

The Holy Prophet (saw) is reported to have said: "What will happen to a people who place conditions (that are not found in Allah's Book)?"
(Bukhari #456, 1493, 2735, etc.)

The definition of hypocrisy:

"It is said that hypocrisy is the difference between the secret and the apparent, between the word and the deed, and between the entry and the exit. And it is said that the base of hypocrisy on which it is raised is falsehood."
(Farabi, Sifatul Munafiq #50)

The bolded meaning take what one does in private, and then what they do in public. That difference is a hypocrisy. Any kind of inconsistency is a possible detour into hypocrisy. Simply put, hypocrisy is not just being un-Islamic on the 'inside' (secretly) and Islamic on the 'outside' (apparently), but being Islamic on the inside (secretly) and being un-Islamic on the outside (apparently) is also a hypocrisy. It may be treated differently depending on the circumstances, but it entails all the side-effects of hypocrisy on the self and psyche. And lying's lying, with the punishment thereof, in all but three cases (during war, to reconcile two Muslims, and to save a marriage).

There are two kinds of hypocrisies:

1) Hypocrisy in belief. Or 'aqeedah. This is outright Kufr (disbelief). Beyond, even, for such a person is a Kafir. There are even avenues to persecute this through Shariah which normally recognizes any kind of verbal shahadah as an oath of Islam by law. These are the Munafiq (hypocrites).

2) Hypocrisy in practice, but not in belief. This does not remove a person from Islam, though they might resemble those that are. They are just sinners. However, habitually sinning does make the person a hypocrite. To habitually sin is to disbelieve (bad or false 'aqeedah) for "faith is included in speech and promise". Were it not for the early jurists and scholars who clearly defined it (on the basis of the Sahaba and the Prophet (saw) of course and them on the basis of the Mercy and ease in Islam), we'd even take complete action as a part of faith through common sense; 'He who does not live his belief does not believe.' - Sigmund Freud

From a Hadith: "Avoid falsehood, for falsehood leads to immodesty (immorality) and immodesty leads to Hell." (Bukhari #6094) (Muslim #105-2067) (Tirmidhi #1971) (Abu Dawud #4989) (Darami #2715) (Malik's Muwatta #18 56.15) (Ahmad 1/384,432)

Mu'awiyah Ibn Haydah (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) also said: "Woe to one who lies, who lies when he speaks that people may laugh. Woe to him. Woe to him." (Abu Dawud #4990) (Tirmidhi #2315) (Ahmad 5/5 7) (Jami Saghir #7136)

Ibn Mas'ud (ra) narrates that Allah's Messenger (saw) said: "A believer is not one who taunts, nor one who reviles, nor one who is immoral, nor one who is shameless." (Tirmidhi #1977) (Ahmad 1/405) (Bayhaqi #5149)

One of the four signs of hypocrisy is that a person abuses when they quarrel.


Jabir narrates that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Between a man, and polytheism and disbelief, is neglect of the Salah." (Muslim #82-134) (Abu Dawud #4678) (Tirmidhi #2618) (Ibn Majah #1078) (Ahmad 3/370)

The hypocrites also offered the Salah lest they be counted among the disbelievers, but they were lethargic and there were shortcomings in their Salah. The hypocrites were distinguished by these shortcomings in the Salah:

1. Being lethargic and late-comers.

"The hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, whereas He will involve them in deception. And when they stand up for prayer, they stand up lazily they do it to be seen by (other) people, and they remember not Allah but a little."
-Qur'an 4:142

"And that they come not to offer the Salah but sluggishly, and that they expend not but unwillingly."
-Qur'an 9:54

The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "This is the Salah of the hypocrite: he sits till the sun turns yellow, he rises and offers the four rak'at, not mentioning Allah therein but a little." (Abu Dawud #413)

2. Offering Salah at one jump.

Once a person entered Masjid-e-Nabawi and quickly performed salaat. After the salaat he went to Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam and made salaam. He replied to the salaam and said: “Go back and repeat your salaat, for you have not
prayed.” The person went back and again repeated the salaat in haste. After that he went to Rasoolullah sallallahu
alayhi wasallam and greeted him with salaam. He replied to the salaam and said: “Go back and repeat your salaat, for you have not prayed.” The person went back and yet again repeated the salaat in haste. He went to Rasoolullah sallallahu
alayhi wasallam and made salaam. He replied to the salaam and said: “Go back and repeat your salaat. You have not
prayed.” This time the person asked, “O Rasoolullah! This is the only way I know how to perform salaat. You
teach me how to perform it.” Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “When you stand up for salaat, make complete ablution, then face the Ka’ba, recite takbir and read what is easy for you from the Qur’an. Afterwards do ruku’ till you are at ease with the ruku’; then rise up till you stand erect in qaumah; then do sajdah till you are at ease with the sajdah; then rise up till you are at ease with the jalsah” (Mishkat-al-Masabih). (Narrated by Rifa'ah (ra) in Tirmidhi #303) (Narrated by Abu Hurayrah (ra) in Bukhari #757) (Muslim 45-397) (Abu Dawud #856 (Rifa'ah)) (Nasa'i #1054) (Ibn Majah #1060) (Ahmad 2/437)

To get an excellent guide on how to easily fix these shortcomings, get Abdur Rauf's Some Serious Mistakes in Salaat from this free site.

If Salah does not meet that standard, it is the Salah of the hypocrites. "They are worshippers, yet they face destruction."
3. To regard Salah (with Jamaat) as a burden.

Ibn Abbas (ra) narrated that the Prophet (saw) said: "He who hears the adhan but does not come to it, for him is no Salah unless he has a reason." (Abu Dawud #551) (Ibn Majah #93)

Ali (ra) said: "There is no Salah for the neighbour of the mosque, except in the mosque." Someone asked, "who is the mosque's neighbour?" He said: "One who hears the call (adhan)." (Musanaff Abdur Razzaq 1/497,498)

Congregational Salah is fardh on men. Those of you who live on college campuses finally have a positive opportunity in light of the Sunnah. There are usually prayer rooms or halls set aside where Jamaat is held for all five Salahs, and these are in immediate reach, closer than any Mosque could be.

4. Failing to pray Friday three times without an excuse.

The Prophet (saw) said: "People must cease to miss their Fridays else Allah will apply a seal on their hearts. Then they will become those who are neglectful." He also said: "He who misses three Fridays without an excuse will be recorded among the hypocrites."

"The hypocrite men and women are as one from another. They enjoin the wrong, and they forbid the right, and they withhold their hands (from expending in the way of Allah). They forget Allah, so He has forgotten them. Surely the hypocrites are the transgressors."
-Qur'an 9:67

Enjoining the wrong and forbidding the right doesn't necessarily mean to literally tell someone to stop something specifically right and do instead this specific wrong action. For instance, frowning upon a person for growing out the beard according to the Sunnah and approving of someone who is clean shaven is enjoining the wrong and forbidding the right. When it is said to 'enjoin right', it means smartly and subtley, so as not to offend (and drive the person away from that very action). So if someone enjoins wrong in a similarly low-key and subtle way, it is the same. One does not need to shout wrong things from the rooftops to be enjoining wrong.


"Ostentation is a blameworthy quality and it is a minor kind of polytheism."

Thawban (ra) narrated that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Surely, I know a section of my Ummah who will come on the day of resurrection with piety like the mountains of Tihamah (in hugeness). But Allah will scatter their pieties like particles of dust in all directions." He asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), describe them to us. Make them well known to us that we may not be like them unknowingly." He said, "They are your brothers, of your own race. They devote to worship in the night as you do, but they are a people who when alone commit the forbidden that Allah has disallowed." (Ibn Majah #4245)

Jundub (ra) narrated that the Prophet (saw) said: "He who makes his doings heard, Allah will make his (evil intention) heard and he who shows off Allah will make him be seen (with his intention)." (Bukhari #6499) (Muslim #48-2987) (Tirmidhi #2381) (Ibn Majah #4207) (Ahmad 3/40)

Mahmud Ibn Labid (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) said: "What I fear most for you is the minor polytheism." He said, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), what is that?" He replied, "Ostentation. Allah will say on the Day of Resurrection when He rewards the people for their deeds, 'Go to those whom you showed (your doings) in the world, and see if you find with them a reward.'" (Ahmad #22523) (Bayhaqi #6831) (Jami Saghir #1555)

The Prophet (saw) taught a prayer for when we fail to disassociate partners with Him in our worship and other doings (specifically when being ostentatious, minor polytheism... shirk): 'Allahumma innee a'oodhobika an ushrika bika wa anna a'lamu wa astaghfiruka limaala a'lam' (Ahmad 4/403, narrated by Abu Musa Ah'ari (ra))

Ridiculing, Taunting, and Blaming - Making Fun of Someone

"Those who find fault with the believers who give alms cheerfully and such as find not anything to give but their hard earnings-they deride them. Allah derides them and for them is a painful chastisement."
-Qur'an 9:79

Abu Mas'ud (ra) said about this verse: "When we were commanded to give the Sadaqah, we were labourers. Abu Aqil (ra) came with half a Sa' (of dates) and another man (Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (ra)) brought more than that. The hypocrites exclaimed 'Surely Allah is in no need of this Sadaqah, and this second one has not done it but to show off.' This verse (9:79) was then revealed." (Bukhari #1415 4668) (Muslim #72-1018)
"There are people today who make fun of Muslims who adhere to the dictates of Islam and give charity, are inclined to piety, offer the Salah, wear garments according to the Shariah, grow the beard or take part in Jihad. If a woman uses the veil, they taunt her and say that these are old fashioned people. They consider themselves modern. But, they will not hear anything against the disbelievers who are their ideal." Actions speak louder than words sometimes.

"With the increase of hypocrisy in him, the hypocrite finds the Islamic ordinances and teachings a burden on him and he begins to abandon them. He begins to make fun of them."

"And if you questoin them, then they will certainly say, 'we were only jesting and playing.' Say, 'What, was it then at Allah and His revelations and His Messenger that you have been mocking? Make no excuses. You have indeed disbelieved after your belief. If we forgive a party of you we shall chastise another party, because they have been sinners.'"
-Qur'an (9:65-66)

Qatadah (ra) said about this particular verse: "While the Prophet (saw) was engaged in the battle of Tabouk and a unit of the hypocrites was ahead of him, they said, 'He presumes that he will conquer the castles of Rome and its forts. Away, away!' Allah let his Prophet (saw) know of that which they were saying. So, he said: 'It is incumbent on me to reckon with these people,' and he summoned them and disclosed to them what they had been saying. They swore, 'We were not but merely jesting and playing.' (Tafsir Ibn Kathir) (Tabaari 14:333)
Think about this sin. What are they doing other than being critical, even satirical of the leader of their times? We abhor it because we know of his nature, his holy status and his prophethood. But to them, he was just another leader. If Islam brought them great things, they shared in them. And they looked after themselves and avoided it when they thought it prudent. They had no faith, and a seal was set over them, a veil over their eyes, so that they couldn't see the common sense behind the religion. They couldn't believe. Treating the Prophet (saw) in such a manner now is unheard of, even in the hypocrite camps, because praising him is easy, effortless, and a good way to make yourself look good. But do we treat his injunctions and his religion the same? One of our greatest assets, the compilation and codification of the Deen in form of the books of Hadith, Fiqh, etc. also makes it easy for us to treat differently various aspects of it. Whereas the Pious Predecessors and Sahaba (ra) treated it all with equal reverence.

A Muslim is one from whose hand and tongue other people (especially Muslims) are safe. (Bukhari #11 6484) (Muslim # 41-65 40-64) (Tirmidhi # 2627)

Ibn Mas'ud (ra) narrated that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "There are for interest seventy-three gates. The least harmful of these is like a man committing adultery with his mother. And the most harmful is to damage a Muslim's honour." (Jami us-Saghir #3539)

To Forbid Piety and Enjoin Evil

"The hypocrite men and women are as one from another. They enjoin the wrong, and they forbid the right, and they withhold their hands (from expending in the way of Allah). They forget Allah, so He has forgotten them. Surely the hypocrites are the transgressors."
-Qur'an 9:67

"Preventing piety may take various forms. One who offers the Salah may be mocked, a servant may not be permitted to pray, disallowing someone to take part in Jihad and speaking against it, not keeping fast and ridiculing those who do, and discouraging other people to build mosques or Islamic schools (madrassahs).

Enjoining evil may also take different forms. One may invite others to watch forbidden things in movies or on television, to tease women, to encourage the customs of evil people, to advocate an evil social life, to discourage the veil, to say the veil is only of the heart or only of the eyes, to sell intoxicants, to circulate immoral material through print media, to spread immodesty in the same manner, etc."

This was mentioned earlier. Yikes.

To Promote Immodesty, To Listen to Music, To Tease Women and Girls

"Surely those who love that indecency should be spread concerning those who believe, for them shall be a painful chastisement in this world and the Hereafter. And Allah knows while you know not."
-Qur'an (24:19)

This verse makes it clear to sell forbidden musical instruments, music, films/videos, and spread forbidden things on television then spread the television and the services thereof, etc. are all hypocritical deeds.

"And of mankind is he who buys frivolous discourse to lead astray (others) from Allah's way without knowledge, and to take it in mockery. For them is a humiliating chastisement."
-Qur'an (31:6)

"In the times of the Prophet (saw), men would loiter on street corners and tease passing women. When they were reprimanded, they put forward the pretext that they did not know if the women were slaves or respectable free ladies. So Allah ordained the veil:"
"O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their outer garments close round them. In this way, it is more probable that they will be recognized and not annoyed. And Allah is forgiving, Merciful."
-Qur'an (33:59)
The famous hypocrite, verily their chief in Madinah, Abdullah Ibn Ubayy used to force his female slaves to prostitution. Allah made known his filthy deed in the verse 24:33. Clearly, Muslims prefer to live a chaste life and only the hypocrites among them promote indecency. Many people find excuses to make adultery common in the society. Their character resembles that of the hypocrites."

To Behave Shamelessly

"Modesty and decency are the blessings that keep a person away from evil. When they are lacking, the person is willing to do every wrong."
Ibn Mas'ud (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Surely, from the words of the early prophethood that which has reached the people is: when you do not feel ashamed, do whatever you like." (Bukhari #6120) (Abu Dawud #4797) (Ibn Majah #4183) (Ahmad 4/121)

"Muhgirah (ra) narrated that Sa'd Ibn Ubadah (ra) narrated that if he were to see a stranger with his wife, he would strike him with the blade or sharp edge of his sword. This was conveyed to the Prophet (saw) and he asked, 'Are you surprised of Sa'd's sense of modesty? I have a greater sense of it than he and Allah has a greater one than I.'" (Bukhari #7416) (Muslim #17-1499) (Ahmad #17464 4/248)

Arrogance, Pretentiousness

"Say, 'I ask you not for a reward for it, nor am I of the imposters.'"
-Qur'an (38:86)

The word used for imposters is 'al-mutakallifin'. It implies 'to intentionally speak highly of oneself,' 'pretentions,' 'affectation.'

Abdullah (ra) narrated that Anas (ra) said: "We were with 'Umar (ra) and he said, 'We are forbidden to overdo anything or to use affectation.'" (Bukhari #7393)

To Lack Understanding of Religion

"An understanding of religion is a great blessing of Allah."

The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "When Allah decides to let someone have good, He gives them an understanding of religion." (Bukhari #71, Muslim #100-1037, Ahmad 4/92 1/306, Tirmidhi #2645, Ibn Majah #220 (Narrated by Mu'awiyah (ra), Abu Hurayrah (ra) and Ibn Abbas (ra))
"However, a hypocrite is deprived of religious knowledge and understanding though he may have mastered worldly knowledge. Allah says:
"They know the outward appearance of the life of this world, but of the Hereafter they are heedless."
-Qur'an (30:7)
There are many instances in the Qur'an to prove that the hypocrites know not, percieve not, and understand not. We read in Surah ul-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites):
"They are those who say: 'Expend not on those who are with Allah's Messenger until they disperse.' And to Allah belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites understand not. They say, 'If we return to Al-Madinah, the mightier ones of it will expel therefrom the meaner ones.' And might belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger and the Believers, but the hypocrites know not."
-Qur'an (63:7-8)
And in Surah al-Baqarah, we read:
"They seek to deceive Allah and those who believe, whereas they deceive none but themselves, but they percieve not."
-Qur'an (2:9)

"And when it is said to them, 'Believe as (other) people have believed,' they say, 'Shall we believe as the fools have believed?' Beware! Surely they are the foolish ones but they know it not."
-Qur'an (2:13)
In short, a hypocrite is unaware of religious knowledge. He may be proficient in worldly sciences and may even try to acquire them, but he lacks profiency in religious sciences. The hypocrites cite the Hadith that 'it is fardh on every Muslim to acquire knowledge' to gain worldly sciences, conveniently ignoring its meaning to gain Divine awareness, knowledge of the Qur'an and Sunnah. While it is not disallowed at all to acquire worldly sciences yet it is meaningless to acquire them without religious knowledge. Knowledge of religion is a means of success in the hereafter, therefore it must be sought first."

To Have Doubts About the Divine Decree (Predestination)

Refer to the Hadith about the definitions of Iman, Islam, and Ihsan. The definition of Iman (Faith), according to the Prophet (saw)'s answer to Jibrail (as) included: "That you believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messenger and the Last Day, and that you believe in the decreeing both of good and evil." Jibrail (as) said: "You have spoken the truth." (Muslim #1) (Abu Dawud #4695) (Ibn Majah #63) (Ahmad 1/51) (Narrated by 'Umar ibn Khattab (ra))

Jabir (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "A person does not believe unless he (also) believes in the decreeing both of good and evil till he is convinced that what has afflicted him could not have been averted and what has bypassed him could not have afflicted him." (Tirmidhi #2144) (Jami Saghir #7585)

"And we shall certainly try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of riches and lives and fruits. And give glad tidings to the persevering, who when on affliction befalls them, say, 'surely, we belong to Allah and to Him we are to return.' Those are they on whom are (bestowed) blessings and mercy from their Lord. And those, they are the rightly guided."
-Qur'an (2:155-157)
The hypocrites, however, raise objections. Like they did after the Battle of Uhud when seventy Sahaba (ra) were martyred. Allah says about them:
"Those who said of their brethren, while they themselves held back, 'had they obeyed us, they would not have been slain.' Say 'Then avert death from yourselves, if you are truthful.'"
-Qur'an (2:168)

To Spread Mischief on Earth

Including terrorists and those who wage harabah (against civilization, either openly in the name of Jihad or secretly through other means):
"The only recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive to do corruption in the land, is that they should be slain or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides, or they should be banished from the land. That is a degradation for them in this world, and in the hereafter awaits them a mighty chastisement."
-Qur'an (5:33)
It also applies to the subtle variety:
The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "The Muslim is one from whose tongue and hands other Muslims are safe." (Bukhari #10) (Muslim #65-41) (Tirmidhi #2627) (Abu Dawud #2481) (Narrated by Abdullah Ibn Amr (ra) and Abu Hurayrah (ra))

"And of mankind there is he whose talk about the life of the world pleases you, and he calls on Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most stubborn in altercation. And when he turns back, he makes effort in the land to do corruption therein and to destroy the tillage and the stock, and Allah loves not corruption. And when it is said to him, 'Fear Allah,' arrogance seizes him in sin so Hell shall be enough for him, and it is certainly an evil resting place."
-Qur'an (2:204-206)
Keep in mind this is all about other Muslims, not disbelievers. In this day and age, many people go further and harm religion via innovations or outright marginalization in the name of progress:
"And when it is said to them, 'Do not do corruption on the earth,' they say, 'we are only peacemakers.' Beware! Surely they are the corrupters, but they perceive it not."
-Qur'an (2:11-12)
This can apply to anyone from heads of state to those in your neighborhood.

Seeking Faults in Other Muslims

Ibn 'Umar (ra) narrates that Bara Ibn Aazib (ra) narrated that Allah's Messenger (saw) addressed them so that women (also) heard him within their veils. He called out in a loud voice, "O company of those who have believed with their tongues, but faith has not been established sincerely in whose hearts, do not backbite the Muslims and do not seek to find their faults, for, who seeks to find the faults of his brother, Allah will seek out his faults. And he whose faults are sought by Allah, He will expose him (even) in the deepest part of his home." (Tirmidhi #2032) (Abu Dawud #4880) (Ahmad 4/421) (Ibn Hibban)
This is also used as a defense by the hypocrites to be left alone, but they fool no one. Noting someone's apparent faults without resorting to spying and investigation in order to be better aware and defended from that person's mischief or influence is a complete other matter.

To Be Careful of Appearances But Neglect The Hidden

"A Muslim is careful to set right both the apparent as well as the hidden aspects of his being. (Jami Saghir #1742) Whereas a hypocrite only concentrates on the apparent, their outward forms, and neglects his hidden inner side.
"And when you see them, their figures please you and if they speak, you listen to their speech. (yet) they are like propped-up beams of timber. They think every shout (they hear) to be against them. They are the enemy, So beware of them. May Allah destroy them! How are they perverted!"
-Qur'an (63:4)

Zayd Ibn Arqam (ra) said about this verse that the hypocrites were men of apparent beauty! (Muslim #1-2772)
The verse clearly describes first their pleasing figures and physical forms, on which they spend much time, their eloquent and pleasing speech, but then points out their insecure and almost paranoid nature. A clue to what lays inside. Beware of Muslims who approach you as these.

To Rely on Laws Other Than Allah's

This has two manifestations. The more serious and prominent one is to literally rely on the courts and law systems that are not Shariah unless the outcome is pleasing in the latter.

The other is the everyday process of internally passing judgement on all that we see or interact with around us.

"Those who do not judge by the Qur'an and the Sunnah are sinners, transgressors, and infidels. Allah says:"
"And whosoever judges not by what Allah has revealed, so those, they are the disbelievers."
-Qur'an (5:44)

"...they are the evildoers."
-Qur'an (5:45)

"...they are the transgressors."
-Qur'an (5:47)

To Do That Which Harms Religion

Uqbah Ibn Aamir (ra) narrated that he heard Allah's Messenger (saw) say, "The ruin of my Ummah lies in the Book (the Qur'an) and the milk."

Someone asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! What, in the Book and the milk?" He said, "They will learn the Qur'an and will interpret it in a way other than it was revealed. And, they will love the milk and forsake the congregational Salah and the Friday Salah. And they will take to the villages."
The first part is completely obvious to even those in the worst denial.
Ibn Rajab explained this Hadith: "They will stay in the villages for the number of days there is plenty of milk and that is a lengthy period always. During this period, they will forsake the Salah of Friday and the Salah with the congregation."
Congregational Salah and Friday Salah are fardh on men. Villages means outlying or remote areas where there are no Mosques so these opportunities do not exist. People will flock to these areas, leaving behind populated Muslim areas where Mosques and opportunities to practice their Deeni duties are aplenty.

Character of the Hypocrites

Two kinds of hypocrites are worth special mention. The kind who believe that Paradise is only for them and those who share their opinions. They wage war on their fellow Muslims and kill them. The other is he who pursues his whims and wishes and is not stopped by anyone. He goes into a rage for the world, does whatever it takes to get it, kills and fights for it, and shows a wildness for it. They'll do whatever it takes, regardless of moral obligations, to get what they want.

These two kinds come in varying degrees of course. You do not need to kill and wage war. Holding these views and turning your activities and focus in this regard is enough. However, pushed to the limit, they would break all limits.

Analyse carefully the following:
"Have you considered him who takes his caprice to be his god?"
-Qur'an (45:23)

Hasan (ra) said about it: "He is the hypocrite who does whatever he likes." (Sifat ul Munafiq #45)

Qatadah (ra) said about it: "He is one who gets done whatever he wants to do." (Tafsir Qurtubi 16/166) (Tafsir Tabari 25/150) (Sifat ul Munafiq #46)
In Western terminology, the psychology of these types clearly conform to the popular personality disorders such as Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial, Histrionic, etc. They lack a conscience of the kind that normal people have.

"The hypocrites also pleaded that if a correct Jihad was being waged, they would have joined definitely. Or, if they had the expertise, they would have fought." Verse 3:167 is about this.

Carefully ponder the following:
"And be not like those who say, 'We have heard,' while they hear not."
-Qur'an (8:21)

The Qur'an has several verses illustrating examples of hypocrites with parables and the like.
"Their similitude is as the similitude of a man who kindled a fire, so when it lit all around him, Allah took away their light, and left them in (utter) darkness (where) they could see nothing deaf, dumb (and) blind; so they will not return."
-Qur'an (2:17-18)

"Or as a rainstorm from the heaven, wherein is darkness and thunder, and lightning they put their fingers in their ears against the thunderclaps, for fear of death. And Allah encompasses the disbelievers. The lightning well-nigh snatches away their sight. Whenever it gives them light they walk in it, and when it becomes dark over them, they halt. And had Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Surely Allah has power over everything."
-Qur'an (2:19-20)
The theme there being that in brief flashes of light (visions or understandings of Islam), they move forward. Otherwise they halt or regress as in darkness when the light goes out. "They see the truth sometimes and they fall into doubt other times. Their doubt is like the rain in the darkness." And they are to eventually be left in darkness.
"And they swear by Allah that they are truly of you, whereas they are not of you, but they are a people who are afraid. If they could find a refuge or some caverns, or a place to enter into, they would surely have resorted there to crushingly."
-Qur'an (9:56-57)
"When the light of Islam falls on them, they get some of it in their hearts and join the Muslims. But when Islam faces difficulty or trying times, they retreat away from the Muslims." A hypocrite also does not have his sins erased via hardships, difficulties, sickness, etc. like a normal Muslim. An example in the Hadith is of a blade of grass that bends with the wind, then straightens itself. A hypocrite is compared to a pine tree. It does not bend but remains straight until one day it is uprooted suddenly. Their illness is sudden and final.

This one is truly unsettling for most can identify with it:
"Wavering between that (and this) belonging neither to these nor to those. And whomsoever Allah sends astray, you will not find a way for him."
-Qur'an (4:143)

Narrated Ibn Umar (ra), the Prophet (saw) said, "The example of a hypocrite is like an ewe that moves from one flock to another not knowing which one to follow." (Muslim #17) (Nasa'i #5037) (Ahmad 2/47)
Their final fate:
The Prophet (saw) said: "...then He will meet the third and say to him the same words (as before), and he will respond, 'My Lord, I believed in you, your Book and your Messengers. I offered the Salah, I fasted and I gave the Zakah.' He will laud himself with piety as much as he can. Allah will say, 'Here (you stay) then,' and He will say, 'Now we bring to you our witnesses.' He will wonder to himself who could testify against him. So his mouth will be sealed and it will be said to his thighs, his flesh, and his bones, 'Speak!' And they will speak concerning his deeds. This will be in order that justice might be dispensed to him and Allah will be angry with that hypocrite." (Muslim #16-2968)
Refer to verses 58:18, 57 : 13 through 15.

Guarding Against Hypocrisy And Our Current Era

Hypocrisy is a disease that drives faith out of the heart. Sometimes a person is unaware that it has taken up residence in their heart and they perform the deeds of a hypocrite unknowingly.

The Sahaba (ra):
Abu Ayyub Ansari (ra) said, "Times will come to a man when he has not even a needle's worth of hypocrisy in him. But times will also come to him when he does not have faith even the worth of a needle." (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #77)

Jubayr Ibn Nufayr (ra) said that he heard Abu Darda (ra) while he was finishing his Salah. He sought refuge in Allah from hypocrisy and he sought it again and again. Jubayr asked him, 'What's with you, o Abu Darda? You and hypocrisy?' He said, 'Leave me alone. By Allah, a man turns away from his religion in just a moment, and comes out of it.'" (Sifat un Nafiq #73)

Aban asked Hasan and he asserted, "what gives me security from hypocrisy when (even ) Umar Ibn Khattab (ra) was fearful of it?" (Ibid)

Mu'awiyah Ibn Qurrah (ra) said, "That there is no element of hypocrisy in me would be dearer to me than the world and whatever it contains. Indeed, Umar (ra) was fearful of it, how then may I be safe from it?" (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #86)

Mu'lla ibn Ziyad said that he had heard Hasan swear in the Mosque - By Allah other than whom there is no God, there has never been nor is a believer who has no fear of hypocrisy. And there was never, nor is, a hypocrite who fears hypocrisy. He who does not fear hypocrisy is a hypocrite. (Ibid #87)

The slave of Ghafarah, Umar (ra) said: "The furthest of men from hypocrisy and the most fearful of them for himself is one who finds that nothing can save him from it." (Sifat ul Munafiq #94)

Ibrahim Taymi (ra) said, "When I compare my words with my deeds, I am fearful lest I be a liar." (Bukhari chapter 36, Book of Faith, heading preceding Hadith #48)

Ibn Abu Mulaykah said, "I met thirty of the Prophet's (saw) Sahaba (ra). Each one of them was fearful of hypocrisy in himself. There was none among them who said that he had the faith of Jibril (as) and Mika'il (as)." (Ibid)
Our time:
Ayshah (ra) narrated that when Allah's Messenger (saw) died, hypocrisy was already visible in Madinah and the Arabs apostated. (Sifat un Nifaq wa Na't ul Munafiqin #117) (Mu'jam Awsat (Tabarani) 5/48) (Mu'jam Saghir 2/214)

Hudhayfah (ra) narrated: "Surely if a man among you spoke something in the times of the Prophet (saw), he became a hypocrite because of that. But today, I hear it from one of you ten times." (Ahmad #23191)

'Umar Ibn Khattab (ra) narrated: "Three things destroy Islam: the straying of a scholar, the hypocrite's debating with the Qur'an, and the misleading Imams (who rule and lead)." (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #31) (Darami #647)

Hudhayfah (ra) said, "The hypocrites who are among you today are worse than the hypocrites who were in the times of Allah's Messenger (saw)." Someone asked him, "O Abu Abdullah, how is that?" He said: "Those people used to conceal their hypocrisy while these ones make it known." (Musnad Abu Dawud Tiyalsi p55) (Ibn Abu Shaybah 15/109) (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #53) (Sifat un-Nifaq wa Na't ul-Munafiq #110)

Anas Ibn Maalik (ra) narrated that Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "Before the Last Hour, there will be fitnah (trials and mischief) like parts of a dark night. A man will arise in the morning as a believer but evening will find him to be a disbeliever. He will see the evening as a believer but come to morning as a disbeliever. And people will sell their religion in return for worldly possessions." (Tirmidhi #2197) (Ahmad #17711) (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #104)

Abdullah Ibn Umar (ra) said, "A time will come to the people when they will assemble in their Mosques but there will not be among them a believer." (Sifat ul Munafiq #108) (Ibn Abu Shaybah #30355)

Mu'adah Ibn Jabal (ra) said, "Surely, behind you are trials when there would be abundant wealth and the Qur'an would be opened so much so that everyone will take it the believer and the hypocrite, man and woman, the young and the old, the free man and the slave (meaning they will learn it). Perhaps a speaker might say, 'What is it with the people. They do not follow me though I have recited the Qur'an? They will not follow me till I introduce for them something other than it.' Hence, beware of innovations! Surely, that which is innovated is error (and misleading)." (Abu Dawud #4611) (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #41)
Hasan (ra) said, "The Last Hour will not come till every people are governed by their hypocrites." (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #117)
May Allah save us.

Monday, November 12, 2007


Category: SOUND

Remembering death is the solution for many problems of this world. It can cure hard-heartedness and it can end sins and unmindfulness. The way to achieve a desire for, even a love of or looking forward to death is to remove all attachments to the world. Spend your wealth in the way of Allah and you'll want to meet Him. If you preserve it, you'll want to remain with it. This has been suggested by the Prophet (saw).

'Aisha (ra) says: "The Prophet (saw) used to fast frequently during the month of Shaban since the list of those who have to die during the year is prepared during this month. A man is engaged in getting himself married but his name is recorded amongst the dead. A person is going to perform Hajj but his name is included in the dead."

Origin of Death

Hazrat Hasan (ra) is reported to have said that when God created Adam (as) and his progeny, the angels humbly pointed out to God that the offspring of Adam (as) would not be accommodated on the Earth. God proclaimed that He would bring death into Being. The angels said that if He created death they would not be able to lead a pleasant life. God proclaimed that He shall inspire them with hope. (Ibn e Abi Shaiba)

Barzakh (time between death and Day of Resurrection)

Hazrat Sa'id b. Jubair (ra) is reported to have said: "When a man dies, the members of his family in Barzakh welcome him in the same way as the living persons receive a man in the world on his return from a foreign country." Hazrat Shabit Banani (ra) is reported to have said: "When a man dies his relatives in Barzakh, who are already dead, surround him and feel much greater pleasure in meeting him than that felt by a living person in the world at the time of receiving a man on his return from a foreign country." Hazrat Qais b. Qabisah (ra) is reported to have said: "The Holy Prophet (saw) disclosed on one occaison that a disbeliever could not speak to the dead. Somebody asked him whether the dead could converse with one another. He replied in the affirmative and added that they also pay a visit to one another."

Pangs of Death

Hazrat Yazid Raqqashi (ra) is reported to have said: "If the people should know about the pangs of death which the dead person has to undergo, they would begin to lament over the pangs of death to be sustained by them rather than their actual death."

Hazrat Auzair (ra) is reported to have said that the effect of the pangs of death is felt by the dead up to the Day of Resurrection. According to Hazrat Shaddad b. Aus (ra), death is the most severe of all the sufferings experienced during the span of life in this world or the next. It is more sharp than the teeth of a saw, more piercing than the edge of the blades of scissors and more torturing than being baked in a cauldron. If the dead rise form the grave and give a description of the pangs of death sustained by them, no person would be able to pass the time comfortably in this world or enjoy a sound sleep.

It is said that when Moses (as) died, Almighty God asked him how did he feel the agonies of death. He replied that it seemed to him as if an alive sparrow was being roasted in such a way that its soul lingered in the body and it found no way to escape. He is also reported to have said that his condition was just like an alive goat which was being flayed.

The Angel of Death

It is said the Angel of Death used to just come to people and they started to curse him and fear him. He complained to Allah who created illnesses and the like so they cursed those instead.

Hazrat Hasan Basri (ra) is reported to have said that when a person dies and the members of his family start weeping, the Angel of Death stands at the door of the house and says that he has not deprived the dead person of his livelihood. So long he had to benefit himself out of his subsistence, he did. He has not cut the span of his life short. He is bound to visit the house again and again till all the members of the household would taste the cup of death. Hazrat Hasan Basri (ra) is reported to have sworn to the effect that if the members of the bereaved family could have a look at the angel of death and hear him, they would have forgotten the dead body and turned to their own selves.

Hazrat Ibrahim (as) desired the Angel of Death to show him the shape he assumed at the time of extracting the soul of the transgressors. The Angel of Death told him that he would not stand this dreadful sight but Hazrat Ibrahim (as) insisted on that. Then the angel requested him to turn his face and so he did. After a moment, the angel of death allowed him to see. When Hazrat Ibrahim (as) looked up, he beheld a dark black man (like a ghost) with long and bristled up hair, clad in black apparel, emitting filthy smell, flames leaping out from his mouth and nostrils and lightning glittering in his eyes. No sooner did Hazrat Ibrahim (as) see the apparition than he fainted.

An episode of 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz (ra)

One day Hazrat 'Umar b. 'Abdul 'Aziz (ra) joined a funeral party. When he reached the graveyard, he went to a remote place and sat there and began to think about something. Somebody, addressing the Caliph, enquired the reason of his sitting alone at a place especially when he was the guardian of this dead body. He told him that he had come there at the call of the grave. The grave had spoken to him the following words: "O 'Umar b. 'Abdul 'Aziz, why don't you ask me the manner in which I welcome those who come to meet me." Hazrat 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz (ra) asked the grave to tell that. The grave said: "I snatch their coffins and tear their bodies into pieces, suck their blood and eat their flesh. Shall I tell you how I disembody the joints of a dead body? I seperate the shoulders from the arms, the arms from the wrists, the hips from the body, the hips from the thighs, the thighs from the bones, the knees from the shanks and the shanks from the feet." Afer saying that, Hazrat 'Umar b. 'Abdul 'Aziz (ra) began to weep and said: The stay in the world is short-lived but its allurements are many. Who is honoured in the world is dishonoured in the life Hereafter, who is wealthy here, is a beggar there. He who is young is bound to decay and he who is alive is bound to die. One should keep himself away from it lest it should deceive him because it turns away its face very soon. Foolish is he who is taken in by its baits. Where are those who were enamoured of it and who populated big cities, dug canals, planted big gardens and departed after staying for a short time? They always thought of their sound health but the improvement in health provoked the lusts of the flesh in them and they indulged in committing sins. Their abundant wealth was an envy of all men in the world. Even though they had to face difficulties, yet they amassed large sums of money. The people were jealous of them but they went on accumulating wealth. They bore troubles ungrudgingly for the sake of amassing wealth. The lust has deformed their bodies. The worms have eaten up their joints and bones. They used to take rest on comfortable beds, exalted thrones and cosy cushions and had a train of attendants to wait on them. Their friends, relatives and neighbours were always ready to flatter them. Can anybody tell about the hardships borne by them? The poor, the rich, all are lying on the same ground. Where is the wealth of the wealthy? Has his wealth helped him? Has the poverty of the beggar harmed him? What has become of their fluent tongues? What has become of their eyes which used to roll in their sockets in all directions? What has become of their soft skin, beautiful and good-looking faces and their tender bodies? What a ruin worms have wrought to their bodies; turning dark, their flesh being eaten up, their mouths covered with dust, limbs disembodied and joints broken. Where are their servants, who attended them and were at their beck and call? Where are their apartments where they used to take rest? Where are their treasures of wealth which they had amassed? Neither did their attendants make provision for for their food enabling them to eat in the grave, nor did they provide them with a bed and a pillow. They threw him on the ground without any tree or a plant of flower to cast shade upon him. Now they are lying forlorn in darkness. They remain unaffected whether it is day or night. They can neither meet friends nor call any one of them. What a change their tender figures have undergone! The bodies of all men and women are decomposed. Their limbs are disembodied, their eyes get out of their sockets, their necks are seperated, their mouths are filled with water and pus and the worms and insects crawl in all parts of their bodies. They are in a deplorable condition and their spouses have been bound to nuptial ties with another person and have been enjoying themselves. Their sons have taken possession of their properties and the inheritors have distributed the property. But there are also fortunate beings who are enjoying themselves in the grave, their countenances are fresh. These are the same people who remembered this home (grave) while lying in a home of deception (world) and preferred to meet the demands of the Hereafter to the demands of the mortal world, and made the provision and preparations for a journey towards the grave. When a aman is destined to die sooner or later, he should not entangle himself into the allurements of the world. Does he think that the world will stand by him? Does he think that he will live forever in this transient world?

When the Angel of Death approaches him, nobody will save him from his clutches. He is bound to leave behind him in the world his huge buildings, the ripe fruit of his gardens, his cosy cusions and his summer and winter suits. Sweat will stream down his body. He will feel thirsty and the agonies of death will make him toss in the bed.

The man, who today on the death of his brother, his son, his father, shuts their eyes, who on one occaison washes the dead body and shrouds it in the coffin, while on other occaison participates in the funeral gathering and lays the dead body in the grave, must bear in mind that he will pass through the same trial tomorrow. Then Hazrat 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz (ra) quoted two verses, the translation of which is given below:

"The man always runs after a thing which is bound to perish, and is engrossed in high hopes and great expectations. He does not know that day-dreams can never be realized. He spends his day in forgetfulness and passes his day in unmindfulness and passes his nights in slumber, while death is hovering over his head. He will repent of what he is doing today. He is leading his life like that of animals."

It is said that hardly a week had elapsed after this incident when Hazrat 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz (ra) passed away.

When a person dies, if they were pious persons, as they are carried to the grave they ask to be hurried along. And if they are wrongdoers, they curse their predicament and ask where they are being led to.


A woman who lost her family in a tragedy said: "A person who would ponder over patience and impatience would see much difference between them. The reward of patience is noble and for impatience there is no reward."

Then she recited these verses: "I endured because endurance is the best thing to rely upon. If any advantage could be obtained by impatience I must have adopted it. I endured many a misfortune that if these fell even on mountains, these must have broken into pieces. I exercised full control over my tears and thus barred them to come out. Now, those tears are falling within my heart."

The Death of Prophets

It is a tradition from Abu Huraira (ra) that the Holy Prophet (saw) said Hazrat Dawud (as) was an embodiment of modesty. Whenever he went out, he used to close the door of his house. One day he went out after bolting the door as usual, but on his return, he found a man standing inside the house. He asked: "Who are you?" He told: "I am that being who is not afraid of the kings even and whom none can refuse admittance." He said: "By God! You are the angel of death. You are welcome. You have brough the commandment of the Almighty God." After saying this, he lay down by covering himself with a sheet and the angel of death extracted his soul.

It is a tradition from Tibrani on the authority of Hussain (ra) that the Archangel Gabriel (Jibrail) visited Prophet Muhammad (saw) during the days of his last illness, and asked: "How are you?" The Holy Prophet (saw) told him that he was seriously ill. In the meanwhile, the angel of death knocked at the door and asked for permission to come in. Hazrat Gabriel said: "O Muhammad (saw), that is the Angel of Death (Izra'il). He seeks your permission to come in. Prior to this, he never asked for such permission and would never ask after this." Muhammad (saw) said: "Let him come in." Gabriel permitted him. The angel of death appeared and stood up before the Holy Prophet (saw) and said: "Almighty God hath sent me to you with His explicit instruction to do as you like me to do. So, if you allow me to seperate the soul from your body, I will do this, otherwise not." The Holy Prophet (saw) asked him: "Are you authorized to do so?" He replied in the affirmative with the remarks: "O, Messenger of Allah, Allah hath given me such a command." Then Gabriel told the Holy Prophet (saw): "God is very eager to meet you." Thereupon, the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "O angel of death! Comply with the order of Allah." Upon this, the angel of death seized the breath of Hazrat Muhammad (saw).

- From "The Spectacle of Death" by Khawaja Muhammad Islam

Thursday, November 8, 2007

The Formation of the Sects

Category: SOUND

A Flash through the Formation of the Sects
By Sheikh Muhammad Zaahid Al-Kautharee, Translated by Abdullah bin Hamid Ali

Once the Prophet – may Allah bless and grant him peace – transferred to the Everlasting Abode, those who apostatized during the time of As-Siddeeq[i] did so, and those hypocrites amongst them enticingly advocating the separation between worldly affairs and those of religion appeared, and then they refrained from paying Zakat. So the Companions considered them to be apostates since this distinction is a negation of the Book of Allah of which falsehood cannot come to it from before or behind it. So they fought against them until the situation had become calm.
And the second Khaleefah
[ii] – may Allah be pleased with him - wasn’t any less vigilant against the seducers. He used to banish those who strove to confuse the general masses with puzzling questions without exposing a single difficulty.[iii] And the Islamic conquests flowed over a large expanse while people entered into the Religion of Allah in groves; the different men and denominations adopted it (as a way of life), and country after country complied with its guidance.
And when the (different) conflicts occurred during the caliphate of ‘Uthman
[iv]– may Allah be pleased with him – the enemies of the religion who had gone unnoticed sought to lessen his value amongst the Muslims. So they rushed to spread slander between them and to stir up their thoughts with what was possible to circulate amongst them due to the purity of their hearts and their remoteness from knowing the means of falsification employed by the seducers who didn’t openly display anything that infringed upon the religion. They roamed through the land with this aim paving the way to the termination of this religion by scattering the seeds of ruin. And what ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’[v] did during that period is well known.
And after the Arbitral Decision (At-Taħkeem) during the encounter at Şiffeen
[vi], the Ķhawaarij[vii] dispersed from around Ali – may Allah ennoble his face, and took to excess until they begun to ascribe disbelief to the person who commits the major sin.
And once Ali passed away a people remained partisan in his favor and his family, so they were named ‘The Shee’ah’ (i.e. The Party). The heretics from the Rawaafid
[viii] had found in their midst fertile ground to plant their seeds every time the mistreatment of Ahlul-Bait[ix] by Banoo Umaiyah[x] and others repeated itself.
And when Al-Hasan, The Grandson (of the Prophet), yielded the caliphate to Mu’aawiyah
[xi], a group withdrew from the two (opposing) factions and clung to their masaajid busying themselves with knowledge and devotion. Before that they were with Ali wherever he was. And they are the roots of the Mu’tazilah.[xii]
It is said that the first to withdraw (that is, to adopt the Mu’tazilee traits) was Aboo Haashim ‘Abdullah and Al-Hasan, the sons of Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafeeyah.
[xiii] Then the second (of the two of them) started rebutting the Khawaarij regarding the matter of ‘Eemaan’ (Faith). He would say, “Eemaan is word and creed without action.” So he and his group were named Murji-ah (i.e. Those who Defer), since they delay/defer action from faith (eemaan). And from them a group appeared that used to say, “A sin has no harm with faith (eeman) {i.e. as long as you have faith}.” And they are the Deferrers of heresy (Murji-atul-bid’ah).
And a number of the Jewish rabbinical scholars (al-ahbaar), Christian priests (ar-ruhbaan), and Zoroastrian priests (muwaabadhatul-Majoos) professed Islam during the time of the Rightly Guided (Khulafaa), and then they began after them (i.e. after their demise) to spread the fairy-tales they had amidst those Bedouin story tellers and their simple-minded freed slaves amongst whom they were circulated who weren’t polished by knowledge.
They took them (i.e. fairy tales) from them with haste and related them to others with pure intentions while believing in all of the ascriptions of a body (at-tajseem) and likeness (at-tashbeeh) that their reports contained with respect to Allah, and while taking solace in the creed they were upon during their time of ignorance. And at times they’d falsely attribute them to the Messenger – may Allah bless and grant him peace, or mistakenly. Then tashbeeh (that is, drawing likenesses between Allah and the creation) began to creep into the creed of the different groups and to spread the way that indecency (faahishah) spreads.
And Banoo Umayyah were not alike in vigilance to the Rightly Guided (Khulafaa) regarding the creed of the Muslims unless it infringed upon their rule. So the first to be deceived by them were the Shee’ah. But how quick they were to turn back from that due to the Mu’tazilah’s debate with them. However, it didn’t last with them as it lasted between the Hashaweeyah
[xiv] narrators while Basrah was the Metropolis of opinions and sects.
And, there, Ma’bad ibn Khaalid Al-Juhanee had heard one using the divine decree as a justification for sin. So he carried out the refutation of it while negating the divine decree as being a depriver of choice in relationship to the actions of servants. He was aiming to defend the legitimacy of religious burdens, but his explanation was unclear, so he said, “There is no predetermination and the matter is a future commencement (of things).”

And once that reached Ibn ‘Umar he declared his innocence from him. Then Ma’bad’s group was given the name ‘Qadareeyah.
[xv]’ And his school lasted amongst the unfortunate transmitters of Basrah for centuries. Rather, it evolved amongst a faction of them to the extent that they assigned to the Creator what the Thanaweeyah[xvi] ascribe to light and to the creation what they ascribe to darkness.[xvii]
Ghailaan ibn Muslim Ad-Dimashqee, used spread the opinion of Ma’bad in Damascus. So ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil-‘Azeez sought him, forbade him from that, and removed his doubt. So he stopped, and then said, “O Commander of the Faithful! I came to you straying, and you guided me. And (I was) blind, and you gave me sight. And (I was) ignorant, and you taught me. By Allah! I will not speak of any part of this matter ever again!”

And once the opinion of Ma’bad began to spread, Jahm ibn Safwaan began a rebuttal of it in Khuraasaan, and then he fell into fatalism (al-jabr). So the school of the Fatalists (Al-Jabareeyah) issued from him.
Hasan Al-Basaree was amongst the most brilliant of the Successors (Taabi’een), and of those who persisted for years disseminating knowledge in Basrah while the noblest people of knowledge would attend his assembly. One day some poorly trained narrators attended his assembly. When they made some problematic statements he said, “Move these over to the hashaa of the assembly.” That is, “the side of it.” So they were named the ‘Hashaweeyah.’ And from them came the different divisions of the Mujassimah
[xviii] and the Mushabbihah.[xix]
And after Waasil ibn ‘Ataa learned ‘Itizaal (withdrawal) from the aforementioned Aboo Haashim he would attend the assembly of Hasan. So when the issue of Eemaan (faith) was mentioned in the assembly, Waasil made haste to say that “the non-believer openly professing disbelief and the compliant believer unanimously are referred to respectively as being a non-believer and a believer; while the one who commits a major sin - since applying one of the two titles to them is a point of discrepancy – we refuse to apply this (name) and that (name) to him. So we say that he is a shameless sinner (faasiq) in accordance with what they agreed upon and in flight to what they differed about.”
So it’s as if he sought to take a middle course between the two opposing views and to make the two factions incline towards his view. However, it is in agreement with the Khawaarij in meaning, because he holds the view that the one who commits a major sin will spend eternity in the The Fire. So Hasan wasn’t pleased with his statement, and Waasil was removed from the assembly.
So he began to spread the school of ‘Itizaal and the Five Principles along with his two disciples, ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubaid and Bishr ibn Sa’eed. And from them, Bishr ibn Al-Mu’tamir and Abool-Hudhail learned. And from the latter, Aboo Bakr ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Keesaan Al-Asamm, Ibraaheem An-Nazzaam, Hishaam Al-Footee, and ‘Ali ibn Muhammad Ash-Shahhaam learned.
And from An-Nazzaam, Al-Jaahiz and Ibn Abee Duaad (and he didn’t meet Waasil as was thought) learned. And from the former, Withdrawal (Al-‘itizaal) spread in Baghdaad whereas Aboo Moosaa ibn Sabeeh learned from him, and from him Ja’far ibn Harb ibn Mubashshir, and from them Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillah Al-Iskaafee learned.
And from Ash-Shahhaam, Al-Jubbaaee learned. And from him, his son, Aboo Haashim learned. And ‘Abbaad ibn Sulaimaan learned from Al-Footee. So these were the steersmen of Withdrawal in Basrah and Baghdaad.
And the first one known to speak of ‘the createdness of the Qur’an’ was Al-Ja’d bin Dirham in Damascus. Jahm took that statement from Al-Ja’d, and added it to his heresies that he spread. And from their sum total is the negation of everlastingness (nafyul-khulood)
And once Al-Haarith ibn Suraij stood up against the Umaiyids calling to the Book and the Sunnah he was supported by Jahm, while Muqaatil ibn Sulaimaan was propagating his school of tajseem (that is, the statement that Allah is a body) there. So Jahm commenced to refute him and negate what Muqaatil was affirming, but he went too far in negating until he said, “Verily, Allah is not described with what the servants are described by.” And he didn’t make a distinction between sharing in name and sharing in meaning.
The prohibited thing is the second, not the first, with the condition of it being mentioned in the law, because ‘knowledge’ for example, is something that both the Creator and the creation have been mentioned as being described as having, despite the fact that it isn’t shared between them in meaning. That’s because Allah’s knowledge is ever-present (hudooree). And the creation’s knowledge is acquired (husoolee). And likewise are the rest of the attributes.
And views have been ascribed to Jahm while he has no sect that was associated with him after him. And the association of most of those ascribed to him is under the category of ‘insulting with nicknames’ with the aim of scaring (people) away due to the ill repute of the man amongst (the different) sects. And his views were (merely) distributed amongst them after a thorough examination of them according to their particular vantage points, not according to what Jahm opined, which is the case of every opinion that spreads amongst people.
So once a bit of laxity started to befall the (military) conquests, people found more leisure for preoccupation with those (different) views scattered about, and the passion to become absorbed in them overwhelmed their thoughts.
So the likes of Ibn Al-Muqaffa’, Hammaad ‘Ajrad, Yahyaa ibn Ziyaad, Mutee’ ibn Iyaas, and ‘Abdul-Kareem ibn Abeel-‘Aujaa started a continued striving to spread atheism amongst the Muslims, and to translate the books of the Atheists and the Persian Dualists until their matter got out of control.
Then Al-Mahdee
[xxi] ordered the scholars of polemics from the Theologians (al-mutakallimoon) to compose the books related to ‘The rebuttal of the Atheists.’ So they established the proofs, removed the doubts, clarified the truth, and did a service to the religion.
And those who carried the burdens of those defenses were a group of the Mu’tazilah. So (now) they had become encircled by two enemies: an occupying enemy from outside the nation with views and a philosophy upon which he was trained from an ancient time, and a cruel enemy from inside the nation that the majority were on the verge of joining due to his asceticism while he was far from (grasping) matters of logic.
The distortions of those who mislead from the Jews and the Dualists were broadcast over him. The extent of his work was the assault of the Theoreticians (Ahlun-Nazar) while not making a distinction between the enemy and the close friend. And if rule were given to him, he couldn’t defend (the nation) a single hour of a day.
For this reason, these theoreticians were preoccupied by the former and they fell back from the latter until they completed the refutation of the crypto-infidels (zanaadiqah), exposed their distortions, and then demolished the argument of the Hashaweeyah and revealed the feeblemindedness of their views. And mental illnesses, a number of which cannot be held lightly, clung to the psyches of these theoreticians that were passed on to them from their debaters.
On the other hand, most of the Jurists (fuqahaa) and bearers of the Sunnah (hamalatus-Sunnah) – for the length of these battles – refused to indulge in these matters, while proceeding upon what the Sahaabah and the virtuous Taabi’een were upon of being restricted to what was confirmed by necessity to be from the religion, in addition to the fact that the disputants of the religion had weapons which could only be encountered with the like of their teeth.
They ran with the Muslims on the road of gradualness in the phases of antagonism while the overwhelming majority was in obliviousness to that. And they walked with them to a phase – if the matter and its case had been left alone – their difficulties would’ve almost penetrated to the hearts of the community of Muslims, and then the situation would have been engulfed.
So in the like of these circumstances Al-Ma-moon
[xxii] started to rule, and he began to side with the Mu’tazilah and bring them close until he coerced the people to make the utterance about ‘the createdness of the Qur’an’ (khalqul-Qur’an) and the exoneration (of Allah from the likeness to creation) in accordance with what his mind and the mind of those who mixed with him inspired. Thus, the Inquisition lasted the length of the caliphates of both Al-Mu’tasim and Al-Waathiq. And the latter added the matter of ‘negating the seeing’ (of Allah)[xxiii].
So the opponents of the Mu’tazilah met adversities that continued until Al-Mutawakkil lifted the Inquisition during which Imam Ahmad
[xxiv] showed a kind of firmness that raised his esteem. And Al-Mutawakkil did nothing to earn praise other than removing the trial and preventing the people from debating about the (divergent) opinions and views, while he was a Naasibee[xxv] who hated ‘Ali – may Allah ennoble his face. And he did a number of deeds that one wouldn’t think of.
Then the reaction started to take its natural course of elevation in favor of the Hashaweeyah and the Nawaasib and the suppression of the Theoreticians and the Mu’tazilah, while Ahlus-Sunnah from the Fuqahaa and the Muhadditheen were continuing work in the sciences without a scar or noise.
The Hashaweeyah were operating in accordance with their recklessness and blindness, while seeking the following of hooligans and riffraff, and concocting about Allah what neither the law nor the mind allows, such as the ascription of motion to Him, translocation, limitation, direction, sitting, sitting (others beside Him on His throne), lying down (to rest), establishment, and the like of what they received with (full) acceptance from the swindlers (dajaajilah) of those who dupe amongst the Dualists and the People of the Book, and also from what they inherited from nations that have passed away.
Then they’d publish books that they filled with attacks on others, while piercing the veil of awesomeness in declaring unbelief, hiding behind the burqah of the Sunnah, and boasting of the Salaf. They exploit the obscure statements transmitted from the Salaf that possess no proof in them (in their favor).
Yes! They have a Salaf, but from other than this Ummah. And they are upon a Sunnah, but upon the one who initiated it are the burdens (of all) until the Day of Resurrection, while this isn’t the place to cover their infamies in detail.
The Mu’tazilah were winning over the minds of the thinkers amongst the scholars and striving to retrieve their domination over the Ummah, all the while the Atheists and the Karmathians sunk deep into corruption and occupied the lands whereas there didn’t remain at the bays for defending the religion anyone on post with any cogent arguments that could efface their sleight of hand due to the preoccupation of themselves with newly faced circumstances.
Then in the like of these difficult circumstances Imam Abool-Hasan Al-Ash’aree
[xxvi] – may Allah be pleased with him - launched an attack on the various forms of scourge that had befallen the Muslims, and he stood up to aid the Sunnah and to suppress innovation (Bid’ah).
So he strove first to reconcile between the two (opposing) factions by returning them - away from their extremism - back to the just median by saying to the first of them, “You are upon truth if you mean by ‘the createdness of the Quran’ the expression (lafz), the recitation (tilaawah), and the script (rasm).”
And to the others he said, “You are correct if what you mean, by ‘uncreated’ (qadeem), the attribute that is ever-present with the essence of The Originator (Al-Baaree) that doesn’t become separated from Him as ‘Abdullah ibn Al-Mubaarak says” – meaning, The Speech of the Self (Al-Kalaam An-Nafsee). “And you have no basis for denying the createdness of the utterance of the speaker (lafzul-Laafiz) and the recitation of the one who recites (tilaawatut-taalee), just as the first group doesn’t have the right to negate the attribute ever-present with Him – exalted is He – without utterance or sound.”
And he also said to the first group, “To negate juxtaposition (al-muhaadhaah) and form (as-soorah) is proper, although you must acknowledge the (Divine) manifestation without (asking) how.”
And he said to the latter group, “Beware to ascribe form and juxtaposition (to Allah) and anything that indicates createdness, while you are correct if you limit yourselves to confirming the seeing (of Allah) for believers in the Hereafter without (asking) how.”
And thus he continued until Allah gave him success in bringing together the word of the Muslims, uniting their ranks, suppressing the obstinate ones, and breaking their extremism. And questions from the different regions of the world were brought to him, and he responded to them.
As a result, his mention covered the horizons and filled the world because of his writings and the writings of his disciples about the Sunnah and the refutation of the various groups of heretics, atheists, and the People of the Book.
His disciples scattered about in the lands of ‘Iraq, Khuraasaan, Shaam, and the lands of the Maghrib, and he went his way. And shortly after his demise the Mu’tazilah retrieved some of their strength during the era of Banoo Bawaih. However, Imam Naasirus-Sunnah Aboo Bakr ibnul-Baaqillaanee stood up in their face and subdued them with his proofs. As a result, the people of the Earth to the most distant lands of Africa professed adherence to the Sunnah according to the Ash’aree methodology.
And Ibnul-Baaqillaanee dispatched - with a group of his disciples that he dispatched to the different lands – Aboo ‘Abdillah Al-Husain ibn ‘Abdillah ibn Haatim Al-Azdee to Shaam, then to Qairawaan and the lands of the Maghrib. Then the people of knowledge of the Imams of the Maghaaribah complied with him, and the school (madhhab) spread to Siqqilleeyah and Andalus. And Ibn Abee Zaid, Aboo ‘Imraan Al-Faasee, Abool-Hasan Al-Qaabisee, Abool-Waleed ibnul-Baajee, Aboo Bakr ibnul-‘Arabee, and their students had a helping hand in that.
The narrator of Al-Jaami’ As-Saheeh, Al-Haafiz Aboo Dharr Al-Harawee, spread the madhhab in the Hijaz. And those scholars from the different horizons who traveled to him learned it from him.
And before that, in Shaam, it spread by means of the disciple of Al-Ash’aree, Abool-Hasan ‘Abdul-‘Azeez At-Tabaree, the narrator of The Tafseer of Ibn Jareer on the authority of its composer.
And the people of Shaam would bring the most distinguished Imams from the Ash’aree school time after time, like Imam Qutub Ad-Deen An-Neesaabooree. Noor Ad-Deen Ash-Shaheed brought him upon the request of the scholars.

And a group of the Hanbalee Muqaadisah
[xxvii] who inherited some of the views of Ibn Karraam - who nested in Quds, laid eggs, and left some of his disciples behind as ascetics to have those after them to inherit them (again) – migrated from there once the Christians occupied it. So they carried the heresies of tashbeeh to Shaam. And some of those heresies were in it since the time of ‘Abdul-Waahid Ash-Shairaazee, the disciple of Aboo Ya’laa.
And the Sultan, Salaahud-Deen Al-Ayyoobee, would tend to their thoughts since they were scrupulous emigrants, while he would feign to take notice of their creed. And he didn’t compel people to adopt the Ash’aree school as was thought. Rather (and on the contrary), the exhorter, Ibn Najeeyah, the famous Hanbalee, was shown favor with him.
And his harsh rudeness with Imam Ash-Shihaab At-Toosee, the one who stood up in aid of Al-Ash’aree in Egypt runs in view and earshot of him, but no mention is made of that. Rather, his family nearly yielded to them
[xxviii] in creed, if it had not been for the stance of Imam ‘Izzud-Deen ibn ‘Abdis-Salaam - regarding this matter - the stance of a scholar carrying out his duty. As a result, their voices became insignificant and they gathered together in their homes and restricted themselves to the narrations.
So it appears from all of that that the spread of the Ash’aree School was a result of the authority of knowledge, not by the might of the Sultans. And what occurred in Baghdad and elsewhere regarding a little harshness against the Hashaweeyah from time to time, it was merely due to their breach of security and their creation of disturbances.
The whole while the Fuqahaa of the Madhaahib were protracting ‘Al-Ash’aree’ to their respective schools, and stating his biography in their biographical compendiums (Tabaqaat). And the Hanbalees were most worthy of that; since Al-Ash’aree clearly states during his debates with them that he was on the madhhab of Ahmad. However, they didn’t state his biography in their Tabaqaat, and they don’t consider him to be one of them. Rather, the Hashaweeyah amongst them loathe him more than they hate the Mu’tazilah.
So all of the Maalikees, three quarters of the Shaafi’ees, one third of the Hanafees, and a portion of the Hanbalees have been upon this approach towards speculative theology (tareeqah minal-kalaam), since the time of Al-Baaqillaanee, while two thirds of the Hanafees were upon the Maatureedee approach in the homes of what is beyond the river, the lands of Turkey, Afghanistan, India, China, and all that follows it, except for those of them who inclined towards ‘Withdrawal’ (al-‘itizaal), like some of the Shaafi’ees.

And one of the distinguishing characteristics of the madhhab of the scholar of Medinah is that it negates the filth of heresies from the adherents of his madhhab. So you do not find amongst the Maalikees the heresies of ‘itizaal and tashbeeh. And part of what produced that – according to what I reckon – is Maalik’s prohibition against relating the reports of attributes, just as Ahmad used to forbid the narration of the hadeeths mentioning ‘rebellion against the oppressive governors.’ So it helped him in keeping the khulafaa of Baghdad away from the Hanbalees whatever they did. Rather, it helped in bringing them close. Yes! There is a type of extremism in the area of Sufism amongst some Maalikees since the time of Ibn Taumart.
And some of the Hanbalees are upon the path of the Salaf regarding tafweed (i.e. consigning the knowledge of the mutashaabihaat to Allah), and abandoning indulging (in them), while others of them yielded to the Mu’tazilah. But most of them over the succession of centuries have been Hashaweeyah upon the Saalimee and Karraamee approaches until Az-Zaahir placed the office of supreme justice (qadaa al-qudaat) in Yabris to the four schools for the first time.
Then they made contact with the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah conversing with them about knowledge. As a result, their heretical ills began to go away, and almost not a single Hashawee would have remained if it had not been for the colony of Harraan after the misfortune of Baghdad lied down their saddles in Shaam.
A man appeared amongst them who had a wholesome development in learning (at-talab), in addition to intelligence, memory, character (samt), and the ability to attract the trustworthy sheikhs of learning to his self and their praise of him. He was an exhorter with a fluid tongue, when all the while he was running according to a plan devised to place the Hashawee madhhab under the cover of the madhhab of the Salaf in place of Ahlus-Sunnah
He wasn’t aware that the madhhab of Ahlus-Sunnah - the Ashaa’irah and the Maatureedeeyah - had reached a level of strength in scientific examination over the succession of centuries by the hands of the prodigal personalities of theory and jurisprudence of religion the likes of who this Hashawee wouldn’t even be counted amongst the least of their pupils whereas that if the like of him attempted to collide with them, he would only fall on the top of his head, hit the ground and then be ruined.
And since he didn’t have a Sheikh directing him in the theoretical sciences, as a result, his knowledge didn’t rest upon anything reliable, and it became confused and very contradictory. His (mental) gifts were distributed amongst troublesome heretical tendencies. Then it led to what he did. And his temptations disappeared as a result of the refutation of the scholars.

And it is evident that scholarship had no place in the formation of the Khawaarij and the Mu’tazilah. Rather, political apathy gave birth to them, and then the disputants of the religion amongst the Zanaadiqah infiltrated them. Then both of them evolved over scandalous phases while their original course was toward opposing the standing government.
On the other hand, the Murjiah were a result of a form of scholastic discussion. Their course was toward counteracting the Khawaarij in creed, and then views that were far from the religion and scholarship branched out from them that produced laxness in (religious) practice.
And the Jabreeyah, the callers to immobility and the herald of ruin, resulted from an unscientific discussion. Their roots (‘ulooq) were from the neighborhood of the Samaneeyah, the Baraahimah, and other sects of licentiousness and obscurity.
The Qadareeyah formed from a scientific discussion. Its course was toward the opposition to laziness and reliance, and considering what it evolved to while being influenced by the views of the Dualists.
The Hashaweeyah, ignorance and stagnation made them fall into adopting pre-Islamic views that they inherited from sects they belonged to prior to Islam. And the distortions of the Dualists, the People of the Book, and the Sabians were circulated among them.
They possess asceticism by which they dupe the masses, and ignorant remarks that no sane person could imagine. They are stern in disposition, harsh and rude. They await opportunities to created disturbances, while no view of theirs is manifest unless it is a time of weakness for Islam. And the matter of unbelief gets out of hand whenever their view is manifested, likewise, in all phases of history. Their opposition is directed against logic, the theoretical sciences, and every existing sect.

The Mu’tazilah are the opposite of the Hashaweeyah in a straight line. Scientific study produced them. The gluttony of their minds steered them to attempt to reach the farthest limit of every thing. And their original hostility was directed against stagnation, and their plan was to repel the views entering Islam from the outside with cogent proofs and hushing rational evidences.
They have honorable positions with reference to the Islamic defense against the existentialist materialists (Dahreeyeen), the deniers of prophecy, the Dualists, the Christians, the Jews, the Sabians, and the different factions of Agnostics (Al-Malaahidah).
And you see Adh-Dhahabee mentioning a biographical sketch about Al-Jaahiz in Siyar An-Nubalaa when he mentions his book about Prophecy, just as we haven’t seen any book that comes close to ‘Tathbeetu Dalaail An-Nuboowah’ of Al-Qaadee ‘Abdul-Jabbaar in argumentative strength and good wording with reference to the repelling the doubts of those who spread doubt.
So the complete abandonment of their books isn’t good to do. For how many are the benefits that still exist in their worn out garments that haven’t been stricken with calamity despite time’s returning charge over them! And how much did Al-Ustaadh Al-Imam find in them what by which he could repel the disputants of the time, while he did not shrink back from taking from them without diminishing their right; except that due to the greatness of their preoccupation with debating the disputants a number of views were transmitted to their minds by which they went far from correctness and became immersed in heresies of which the disciples (of the Sunnah) refuted!
Al-Khattaabee, the author of ‘Ma’aalimus-Sunnah,’ said, “The Mu’tazilah were in the initial phase upon the opposite of these fancies. But some of them innovated them during the latter phase.”
And the Ash’arees are those who are balanced justly between the Mu’tazilah and the Hashaweeyah. They didn’t go far away from transmitted knowledge as the Mu’tazilah did, or from logic as was the custom of the Hashaweeyah.
They inherited the best of those who preceded them, abandoned the falsehood of every sect, preserved what the Prophet – may Allah bless and grant him peace, and his companions were upon, and filled the world with knowledge.
And there are found in their midst those who are ascribed to Sufism due to the support of some of the Soofee Imams of the Sunnah in accordance with the Ash’aree approach since the fifth century. And there doesn’t exist one who equals Ash’aree with respect to the enormous work that he carried out. Despite that, his views aren’t free from some of what can be taken into account – like a type of remoteness from logic at one time and from transmitted information another time - by the one who looks at his words regarding a number of theoretical issues, such as his view concerning (the mind’s determination of what is) good and bad (at-tahseen wat-taqbeeh), the designation of purposeful reason (to Allah’s actions) {at-ta’leel}, what (authoritativeness) transmitted knowledge produces (strength-wise)
[xxx], and the like of that. That’s because whoever has disputed at length with the Mu’tazilah and the Hashaweeyah like he did, inevitably something of this sort will occur in his comments.
However, the like of that didn’t happen to his contemporary, The Imam of Guidance, Aboo Mansoor Al-Maatureedee, the Sheikh of the Sunnah from what is beyond the river (maa waraa an-nahr), due to the Sunnah’s complete victory there over the (different) kinds of heretics whereas their mischievous ways didn’t appear in his presence. As a result, he was able to pursue complete balance in his views. So he gave transmitted information its right and logic its (proper) ruling.
And the Maatureedeeyah are the middle path between the Ash’arees and the Mu’tazilah, and very seldom is a Mutasawwif found amongst them. So Al-Ash’aree and Al-Maatureedee are the Imams of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in eastern regions of the earth and its western regions.
They have countless books. And the difference of opinions found between these two Imams is under the category of ‘differences in expression.’ A number of books have been written about that, and Al-Bayyaadee did well in summarizing them in ‘Ishaaraatul-Muraadi fee ‘Ibaaraatil-Imaami.’ Az-Zabeedee transmitted its text in Sharhul-Ihyaa along with numerous typographical errors.
And this Al-Bayyaadee is a master of ‘Ilm al-Kalaam even though he was a latecomer whereas Al-Muqbilee, the author of Al-‘Ilm Ash-Shaamikh, despite his unruliness and difficulty in complying with the scholars, was very occupied with the Ishaaraat of Al-Bayyaadee while acknowledging the wideness in scope of his research.

Here we have only covered the roots of the sects of the people of innovations, while they have sub-sects that branch out from them according to the intermixing of opinions and newness in fancies that occur to them. And they will not reach a specific number until the end of human history. And there is a well-known difference amongst scholars regarding the number that has been transmitted.
The scholars in every stage have been expounding upon what was new up until their time with respect to the proponents of the cult-like sects as well as refuting the falsehood of their opinions. And the views of those factions are laid out in ‘Maqaalaatul-Islaameeyeen’ of Al-Ash’aree, ‘Al-Maqaalaat’ of Aboo Mansoor Al-Maatureedee, ‘Raddu Ahlil-Ahwaai wal-Bida’ of Abool-Husain At-Taraaifee, ‘Al-Milal wan-Nihal’ of Abool-Muzaffar Al-Isfaraayeenee, and others of which haven’t been encompassed.
And many times views are attributed to sects that aren’t found in their books to either give birth to them (tauleedan), resulting from what their view necessitates (ilzaaman), or due to being transmitted from the books of those who are unreliable amongst the rivals like what happened to ‘Abdul-Qaahir Al-Baghdaadee in ‘Al-Farq bainal-Firaq’ and ‘Al-Milal wan-Nihal’, and like what Ibn Hazm does in ‘Al-Fasl’.
What also falls under this category is the reliance upon the like of Aboo ‘Eesaa Muhammad ibn Haaroon Al-Warraaq, Aboo Muhammad Al-Hasan ibn Moosaa An-Naubakhtee, the author of ‘Al-Aaraa wad-Diyaanaat’, Muhammad ibn Ishaaq, the author of ‘Al-Fihrist’, and the books of the Hashaweeyah. Verily, they are full of forgeries.
So the case of the researcher is to be careful about ascribing a statement to someone until he finds it in a book of his that is widely known to be from him. And Ar-Raazee alerted to some of what has preceded during the mention of the book of Ash-Shahrastaanee, even though we are not involved in comparing between the books about the denominations and cult-like sects.
And in the comments of the early theologians are things that those who carry out the defense of the religion in every age must take direction from. What is clear is that the ways of defending the creedal points of Islam and the means of protecting them from the penetration of corruption to the morals and legal judgments are part of what is renewed in every age according to the newness of the approaches of the opponents. And they in themselves are firmly established according to what the sacred law has set limits to. Their realities do not change.
So it is obligatory upon the Muslims in all phases of their existence to have a group of them dedicate itself to examining the kinds of views prevailing amongst the various factions of people, the sciences broadcasted amongst them, and to examine what might possibly bring harm to the Muslims, especially in the area of creed, which remains the source of every good as long as it is deeply rooted and firm. On the other hand, it becomes the source of every corruption if it becomes frivolous and weak.
So they are to study these views and sciences the same way that their proponents study them or a more thorough study than them in order to find in them what can be used to repel the doubts that the enemies of the religion incite but with contemporary means so that when one of them seeks to make a notch on one of its arrows in the direction of the Islamic teachings – whether it is creed, jurisprudence, or ethical behavior – they can send them back to his throat while relying upon the realities of these sciences and its experiments, and depending upon the presentation of theories that overshadow the theories of those who cast doubt while the Islamic way of life is exonerated above colliding with the realities of the sciences. So they’ll erect - without the penetration of their confusions - a protective and fortifying fence just as they’ll mobilize the Party of Allah according to systems that the age requires with neither forbearance (hawadat) nor slowness (tawan). And they’ll record what they extracted - from those sciences the modes of defense - into special books with a style that clings to the mind and that the general masses find easy so that they could be a perfect barrier against the plagues of doubts for all times.
And if they don’t do that, it will be easy for the enemies to find a path to fertile pastures between the Muslims in which the seeds of their confusions can grow in such a way that remove their chaotic roots. Rather, the venoms of unbelief will run inside empty hearts that they gain mastery over. Then the tillage and progeny will suffer ruin. May Allah protect us from the evil of that and awaken us from our sleep.


[i] Siddeeq was the title and epiteth of Abu Bakr, the first khaleefah after the demise of the Messenger of Allah. Siddeeq means ‘True and Trustworthy’. Abu Bakr – may Allah be pleased with him – earned this title since he always made haste to declare the Prophet to be truthful in all that he said even if his claim wasn’t supported by a miracle, as in the case of the Prophet’s night journey to Jerusalem and his ascension to the seventh Heaven in one night. Many people doubted that it truly happened when the Messenger – may Allah bless and grant peace – informed them. Abu Bakr on the other hand responded by saying, “If Muhammad said it happened. Then, it’s true.” Thus he gained the title of ‘Siddeeq.’
[ii] The name of the second khaleefah of Islam is Umar ibn Al-Khattaab – may Allah be pleased with him. He took on the role of khaleefah in the year 13 after being appointed by Abu Bakr who also died in this year. ‘Umar’s reign lasted for about 10 years until he was stabbed by a pagan slave along with a number of other Sahaabah while performing the Fajr prayer. He died from his wounds shortly after, and he left the matter of appointing his successor in the hands of those who remained of the 10 promised Jannah just as the Prophet did – may Allah bless and grant him peace.
[iii] This means that the Khaleefah ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab would simply banish anyone seeking dissension who introduced some form of deviant ‘aqeedah. He didn’t bother to show the incorrectness of their views, since that might lead to further responses from such people. As a result, the arguments would continue as they do until the present day.
[iv] ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan was the third khaleefah in the history of Islam. A faction of Muslims who accused him of hypocrisy and ruling unfairly unjustly killed him in the year 35. They broke into his home and killed him while he was reciting the Holy Qur’an. May Allah be pleased with him.
[v] ‘Abdullah ibn Saba was a former Jew who converted to Islam during the early period. He is accused of being the source great dissension and the driving force behind the appearance of some early sects like the Khawaarij and the Shee’ah.
[vi] The battle at Siffeen is one of the great encounters that occurred between the armies of ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib and Mu’aawiyah ibn Abee Sufyaan. During this battle they agreed to make an elect number of men from each side judges in the dispute between the two warring factions. However, a faction of ‘Ali’s army condemned this motion and considered it to be kufr, since Allah said in the Qur’an ((Judgment belongs only to Allah)) {Sooratul-An’aam: 6}. Thereupon, they dispersed from around him and abandoned him. The appointment of judges in this event is known as the matter of At-Tahkeem.
[vii] Al-Khawaarij is taken from the verb ‘kharaja’, which means ‘to depart from or exit.’ This title was given to those who departed from the obedience of Imam ‘Ali during the encounter at Siffeen. They later evolved into an extreme sect that declared disbelief upon anyone who differed with them and many times would even killed them, while they would show gentleness towards those who have yet to accept Islam. The most outstanding point of their creed was the declaration that anyone who committed a major sin is considered a nonbeliever and would spend eternity in the Hell-fire.
[viii] The Rawaafid, or those who cast off or reject, is the name applied to the most extreme factions of the Shee’ah who are also known as the Imaameeyah. The name ‘Rawaafid’ comes from the verb ‘rafada’, which means ‘to reject or cast off.’ The Imaameeyah believe that ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib was the rightful ruler of the Ummah after the death of the Prophet – peace be upon him, just as they believe that the Prophet appointed him. They believe that this was known to the khulafaa who ruled prior to ‘Ali, and since they didn’t follow the order of the Messenger as a result they are hypocrites and nonbelievers. When some of them tried to convince the distant grandson of the Prophet, Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibnul-Husain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib, to renounce the first two Rightly Guided khaleefahs, he refused to do so. So they rejected him and cast him off. As a result they were named the Rawaafid.
[ix] Ahlul-Bait or ‘The People of the House of Prophecy’ is the title given to the Prophet’s closest of kin to emphasize their dignified status. They are ‘The Prophet, Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, and Husain.’
[x] Banu Umaiyah was the first dynastical ruling tribe that began with the end of the period of the 4 Rightly Guided Khulafaa when Al-Hasan, the Prophet’s grandson, turned over the rule of the Ummah to Mu’aawiyah ibn Abee Sufyaan in an attempt to make peace.
[xi] Mu’aawiyah ibn Abee Sufyaan accepted Islam during the year of the Conquest of Mecca along with his father Abu Sufyaan. The Prophet – peace be upon him – gave him charge of some important positions in the Ummah during his lifetime. He later became the head of the Muslim state after Al-Hasan ceded power to him. Mu’aawiyah was the first to institute the passage of rule from father to son in the history of Islam. However, it was only after he saw that the majority would not accept the rule of anyone other than one from Banu Umaiyah. So he merely tried to do what was in the best interest of the Muslims at the time. And he is innocent of what his son, Yazeed, did after him. May Allah have mercy on all of them.
[xii] The Mu’tazilah’ is a sect founded by a man by the name Waasil ibn ‘Ataa. Their creed was centered around things like the negation of Allah’s positive attributes such knowledge, power, speech, etc. They affirmed all of His names, but they negated his attributes. They also gave total free will to God’s creatures.
[xiii] Muhammad ibn Hanafeeyah was the son of ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib from his wife Hanafeeyah who he married upon the death of Faatimah – may Allah be pleased with them all.
[xiv] The Hashaweeyah or Crypto-Anthropomorphists is the name applied to those who resemble the Mujassimah, or those who say that Allah is a body unlike bodies, in that they say ‘Allah has hands, eyes, etc. but not like eyes, hands, etc.’ The difference between the two groups is simply that the first group doesn’t say that Allah is or has a body, although the line of thought between the two is the same.
[xv] Al-Qadareeyah is generally applied to those who negated the existence of Qadar.
[xvi] The Thanaweeyah can be translated as ‘The Dualists’ or ‘Those who ascribe two creators to the universe’, one who creates good and one who creates evil.
[xvii] This means that this faction of the Qadareeyah ascribed the creation of good to Allah and the creation of evil to the creation.
[xviii] The name ‘Mujassimah’ means those who consider Allah to be a body.
[xix] The name ‘Mushabbihah’ means those who give Allah a likeness.
[xx] This means that they negated the everlastingness of Hell.
[xxi] Al-Mahdee was one of the khaleefahs of Banoo ‘Abbaas.
[xxii] He is another khaleefah of Banoo ‘Abbaas.
[xxiii] That is, he coerced the people to believe that it was logically and religiously impossible for one to see Allah in both the temporal world and the Hereafter.
[xxiv] Ahmad ibn Hanbal is one of the greatest Imams of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. He was imprisoned for 15 years for refusing to say that the Qur’an was created. His reasons were merely that he didn’t find anyone before him saying such a thing. His refusal wasn’t a denial of the distinction made between the written book and Allah’s eternal speech, as some erroneously understand.
[xxv] The opposite extreme of the pro-‘Ali Shee’ah were the Naasibeeyah, who were pro-Mu’aawiyah. They used to curse ‘Ali over the pulpit for a number of years.
[xxvi] Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer says in describing Abool-Hasan Al-Ash’aree:

“Ali ibn Ismaa’eel ibn Abee Bishr Ishaaq ibn Saalim ibn Ismaa’eel ibn ‘Abdillah ibn Moosaa ibn Hilaal ibn Abee Bark ibn Abee Moosaa ‘Abdillah ibn Qais Al-Ash’aree. He arrived in Baghdad and learned hadeeth from Zakareeyaa ibn Yahyaa As-Saajee, and learned Fiqh from Ibn Suraij. And we’ve already mentioned his biography in Tabaqaatus-Shaafi’eeyah.
Ibn Khalikhaan mentioned in Al-Wafayaat that he used to sit in the circle of Sheikh Aboo Ishaaq Al-Maroozee. And Al-Ash’aree was a Mu’tazilee prior to that, and then he repented from it in Basrah on the pulpit. Then he revealed the shameful deeds of the Mu’tazilah and their atrocities. Mentioned amongst his works are Al-Moojiz and others.
It has been related from Ibn Hazm that he said, “Al-Ash’aree has fifty-five (55) works.” And it was mentioned that his yearly income was 17,000 dirhams, that he was the most joking of people, and that he was born in the year 270. It has also been said: ‘260.’ And he died in this year (i.e. 324). It has also been said: ‘in 330.’ And it has been said: ‘between 330 and 339 (bid’in wa thalaatheen wa thalaathi miatin).’ So Allah knows best.”

Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer also says about Al-Ash’aree:
“Ibnul-Jauzee mentioned in Al-Muntazam the demise of Al-Ash’aree in this year (i.e. 331), he spoke about him, and he belittled him as was the custom of the Hanaabilah to speak about the Ash’arees in the past and present. And he mentioned that he was born in the year 260, that he died in the year 331, that he accompanied Al-Jubaaee for 40 years then left him, and that he is buried in Baghdad in the thoroughfare of Ar-Rawaayaa.”
[xxvii] ‘Al-Muqaadisah’ here is a reference to scholars of the Hanbalee School who came from Quds.
[xxviii] He means that Salaah Ad-Deen nearly yielded to the creed of the Hanbalees.
[xxix] Apparently, this is a reference to Shaikhul-Islam Ahmad ibn Taimiyah – may Allah forgive him.
[xxx] Apparently, Al-Kautharee’s intent is not to say that Al-Ash’aree’s views concerning these matters were erroneous. Rather, his intent is that the Mu’tazilah and Hashaweeyah were the first to discuss such matters. And as a result of Al-Ash’aree’s debates with them these matters continued to be discussed after him until the present day. Al-Kautharee’s comments immediately after this points to this being the proper inference to make. So have a look.